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Sherry, John F. Jr. (1986), "The Cultural Perspective in Consumer Research," in Advances in Consumer Research, Vol. Elizabeth C. Hirschman and Morris B. Holbrook, Provo, UT: Association for Consumer Research, 113-117. Evidence suggests that the diffusion of Western values and goods, currently occurring in the Pacific Rim, is a result of language similarity and other variables which communicate materialistic values through advertising and other communication mechanisms (Takada and Jain 1991; Tse, Belk, and Zhou 1989). 3 ed. Wilk, Richard R. (1987), "House, Home, and Consumer Decision Making in Two Cultures," in Advances in Consumer Research, Vol. Hunt, Ann Arbor, MI: Association for Consumer Research, 408-410. Briefly stated, cross-cultural research is a field ripe for post-positivist inquiry. Kahle, Lynn R., (1986), "The Nine Nations of North America and the Value Basis of Geographic Segmentation," Journal of Marketing, 50 (April), 37-47. Although the methodological issues specific to this research have long been acknowledged in the literature, recent studies confirm that the standards demanded by earlier studies have not been met. Over time, not only has the number of subcultural studies increased, but the cultures being investigated have broadened in scope. M. Wallendorf and P. Anderson, Provo, UT: Association for Consumer Research, 398-402. Wallendorf, Melanie and Eric J. Arnould (1988), "`My Favorite Things': A Cross-Cultural Inquiry into Object Attachment, Possessiveness, and Social Linkage," Journal of Consumer Research, 14 (March), 531-547. 14, eds. 2 ed. Substituting tangible goods for representations of cultural values is intuitively appealing and overcomes many of the methodological challenges of accessing and evaluating consumers' internal beliefs and values which become further convoluted by cross-cultural analysis. Finally, while most of the cross-cultural research dealt with industrialized cultures, articles that explicitly examined primitive (meaning nonindustrialized cultures indigenous to the geographical region) cultures are marked with "P" and will be discussed in a separate section. Nagashima, Akira (1970), "A Comparison of Japanese and U.S. Attitudes Toward Foreign Products," Journal of Marketing, 34 (January), 68-74. Ger, Guliz and Russell W. Belk (1990), "Measuring and Comparing Materialism Cross-Culturally," in Advances in Consumer Research, Vol. 16, ed. Material possessions and tangible goods, including food, represented another avenue pursued by consumer researchers to make operational definitions of the abstract culture concept more concrete. The self-identification measure proposed by Hirschman avoids ethnocentric bias of the researcher as might be present in determining subpopulations on the basis of language alone. 6, ed. In an initial attempt to examine race, alienation and consumerism, Pruden and Longman (1972) contrasted high-income Anglo-Americans with low-income Mexican-Americans and African-American consumers. Our findings suggest that cultural category analysis yields the most serviceable results when it is used prior to quantitatively oriented research instruments such as surveys or experiments. We examined cross-cultural consumer behavior publications which have appeared in four major marketing journals and proceedings, Journal of Consumer Research, Journal of Marketing, Journal of Marketing Research, and Advances in Consumer Research over a twenty-year period ranging from 1970-1990. Tse, David K., Russell W. Belk, and Nan Zhou (1989), "Becoming a Consumer Society: A Longitudinal and Cross-Cultural Content Analysis of Print Ads from Hong Kong, the People's Republic of China, and Taiwan," Journal of Consumer Research, 15 (March), 457-472. Goods carry and communicate visible evidence of cultural meaning (Lee 1989; McCracken 1986; Mick 1986), and in some cultures offer evidence of social success (Belk 1984). Reilly, Michael and William L. Rathje (1985), "Consumption and Status Across Cultural Boundaries: Nonreactive Evidence," in Advances in Consumer Research, Vol. 2 0 obj Language is the most important aspect of culture. Google Scholar Richins, Marsha L. and Scott Dawson (1990), "Measuring Material Values: A Preliminary Report of Scale Development," in Advances in Consumer Research, Vol. and Jan C. Reuijl (1985), "Advertising and Industry Sales: An Empirical Study of the West German Cigarette Market," Journal of Marketing, 49 (Fall), 92-98. 13, ed. Richard Lutz, Provo, UT: Association for Consumer Research, 573-575. Yet the focus on cultural similarities and theoretical explanations may ultimately transform the culturally bound theories in consumer behavior to a field with generalizable theories. Alexander, Katherine and James McCullough (1980), "Cultural Differences in Preventative Health Care Choice: A Study of Participation in a Cervical Cancer Screening Program Among Mexican-Americans" in Advances in Consumer Research, Vol. Andreasen, Alan R. (1990), "Cultural Interpenetration: A Critical Consumer Research Issue for the 1990s," in Advances in Consumer Research, Vol. O'Guinn, Thomas C. and Ronald J.Faber (1985), "New Perspectives on Acculturation: The Relationship of General and Role Specific Acculturation with Hispanics' Consumer Attitudes," in Advances in Consumer Research, Vol. Consumption of places and experiences in a global/cross-cultural perspective. Although several studies tried to build up integrative perspectives on cross-cultural consumer researches (Douglas and Craig, 1997), no integrated model is yet found in literature. Indeed, three separate studies comparing three distinct cultures/subculturesCHispanics in the U.S. (Deshpande, Hoyer, and Donthu 1986), French and English speaking Canadians (Kim, Larouche, and Joy 1990), and Mexicans, Australians, and Americans (Gilly 1988)Call concluded that language alone could not accurately predict or explain differences found between subcultures and cultures. Helgeson, James G., E. Alan Kluge, John Mager, and Cheri Taylor (1984), "Trends in Consumer Behavior Literature: A Content Analysis," Journal of Consumer Research, 10 (March), 449-454. Cross-cultural and cross-national consumer research: psychology, behavior and beyond. Cross-Cultural Research (CCR) publishes peer-reviewed articles that describe cross-cultural and comparative studies in all human sciences. Richard Lutz, Provo, UT: Association for Consumer Research, 579-583. Reilly, Michael and Melanie Wallendorf (1987), "A Comparison of Group Differences in Food Consumption Using Household Refuse," Journal of Consumer Research, 14 (September), 289-294. Henry, Walter A. Stayman, Douglas M. and Rohit Deshpande (1989), "Situational Ethnicity and Consumer Behavior," Journal of Consumer Research, 16 (September), 361-371. In reviewing the countries and cultures studied by consumer researchers during the last two decades, a diverse and substantial number of cultures have been investigated. Tigert, D.J., C.W. In 1970, for example, the African American subculture was studied twice (as indicated by the letter "A"). Gentry, James W., Patriya Tansuhaj, L. Lee Manzer, and Joby John (1988), "Do Geographic Subcultures Vary Culturally?" Judging by the number of articles utilizing values and beliefs as operational definitions of culture, many researchers feel that the knowledge of value and belief systems is instrumental in understanding and predicting consumer behavior in cross-cultural settings (Henry 1976; Munson and McIntyre 1978; O'Guinn, Lee, and Faber 1986; Roth and Moorman 1988). Richard Lutz, Provo, UT: Association for Consumer Research, 568-572. People all over the world engage in these activities. Frank R. Kardes and Mita Sujan, Provo, UT : Association for Consumer Research, Pages: 461-474. 4 0 obj Nagashima, Akira (1977), "A Comparative `Made in' Product Image Survey Among Japanese Businessmen," Journal of Marketing, 41 (July), 95-100. (2011). Langeard, E., M. Crousillat, and R. Weisz (1978), "Exposure to Cultural Activities and Opinion Leadership," in Advances in Consumer Research, Vol. The difference in research focus may imply that American researchers assume more cultural similarities with Western culture counterparts than Oriental countries. M. Wallendorf and P. Anderson, Provo, UT: Association for Consumer Research, 562. Elizabeth C. Hirschman and Morris B. Holbrook, Provo, UT: Association for Consumer Research, 59-64. Rudmin, Floyd W. (1990), "German and Canadian Data on Motivations for Ownership: Was Pythagoras Right?" Socio-linguists postulate that language is important in the formation of thought patterns and behavioral responses (Douglas 1979). Cross-Cultural Consumer Behaviour. Researchers investigating topics such as food purchasing behavior, black/white reaction to integrated advertisements, and African-American shopping behavior, for example, noted similarities and differences between the two ethnic groups, but neglected to take the next step in explaining the behavior they cited. model of national culture. Many research studies specialising in marketing are currently focusing on cross-cultural variation in consumer behaviour (Beatty, Lynn, & Pamela 1991, p.154). Michael J. Houston, Provo, UT: Association for Consumer Research, 387-394. 10, eds. Sexton, Donald E. (1971), "Do Blacks Pay More? U.S. Subcultural Research Trends Over time, not only has the number of subcultural studies increased, but the cultures being investigated have broadened in scope. Hirschman, Elizabeth C. (1983), "Cognitive Structure Across Consumer Ethnic Subcultures: A Comparative Analysis," in Advances in Consumer Research, Vol. In Advances in Consumer Research, vol. Belk, Russell W. and Wendy J. Bryce (1986), "Materialism and Individual Determinism in U.S. and Japanese Print and Television Advertising," in Advances in Consumer Research, Vol. cross-cultural and cross-national consumer research by Newton et al. CROSS-CULTURAL CONSUMER STUDIES OF THE AMERICAS (EXCLUDING U.S.) AND AFRICA, CROSS-CULTURAL CONSUMER BEHAVIOR RESEARCH ASIA AND AUSTRALIA. 2 ed. Author: Hasan Kalyoncu largely learned. Sex differences, as a moderating variable, may represent an underlying variable accounting for differing levels of material importance on a cross-cultural basis (Arnould 1989; Wallendorf and Arnould 1988). B. 10, ed. Lee, Wei-Na (1989), "The Mass-Mediated Consumption Realities of Three Cultural Groups," in Advances in Consumer Research, Vol. Understanding of similarities and differences that exist between nations is critical to multinational marketer who must devise appropriate strategies to reach consumers in specific foreign markets. Hunt, Ann Arbor, MI: Association for Consumer Research, 693-701. Haaland, Gordon A., (1974), "The Context of Social, Cultural, and Consumer Behavior," in Advances in Consumer Research, Vol.1. When dealing with a subculture speaking a language distinct from the dominant culture (e.g., Hispanics in the U.S.) or as in bilingual countries (e.g., Canada) language was often used as a segmentation variable or measure of ethnicity. Tse, David K., Russell W. Belk, and Nan Zhou (1989), "Becoming a Consumer Society: A Longitudinal and Cross-Cultural Content Analysis of Print Ads from Hong Kong, the People's Republic of China, and Taiwan," Journal of Consumer Research, 15 (March), 457-472. Mick, David Glen (1986), "Consumer Research and Semiotics: Exploring the Morphology of Signs, Symbols, and Significance," Journal of Consumer Research, 13 (September), 196-213. DISCUSSION AND SUGGESTIONS FOR FUTURE RESEARCH While cross-cultural consumer behavior research has certainly progressed as a field throughout the twenty years of work examined in this review, there nonetheless are aspects of this research which warrant further attention if the field is to contribute to our understanding of consumer behavior. To each culture, language offers an interpretative code or schema for organizing and presenting the world. O'Guinn, Thomas C. and Ronald J.Faber (1985), "New Perspectives on Acculturation: The Relationship of General and Role Specific Acculturation with Hispanics' Consumer Attitudes," in Advances in Consumer Research, Vol. Shimp, Terence A. and Subhash Sharma (1987), "Consumer Ethnocentrism: Construction and Validation of the CETSCALE," Journal of Marketing Research, 24 (August), 280-289. Hirschman (1985), for example, examined similarities of the consumption patterns of U.S. Weinberger, Marc G. and Harlan E. Spotts (1989), "A Situational View of Information Content in TV Advertising in the US and UK," Journal of Marketing, 53 (January), 89-94. Marvin Goldberg, Gerald Gorn and Richard W. Pollay, Provo, UT: Association for Consumer Research, 176-181. Publication trends, cross-cultural similarities across seemingly diverse cultures, are discussed. Becoming an Association for Consumer Research member is simple. and Xu Kuan, (1987), "Effective International Market Potential Assessment: China," in Advances in Consumer Research, Vol. The publication trend corresponds with the increased number of anthropological citations as noted by Leong (1989) in his examinations of the Journal of Consumer Research from 1974-1988. Jolibert, Alain J.P. and Carlos Fernandez-Moreno (1983), "A Comparison of French and Mexican Gift Giving Practices," in Advances in Consumer Research, Vol. While measures of values may be culturally bound, and hence, somewhat limited in their predictive abilities, nonetheless, researchers have continued to study values in different cultural contexts. Andreasen, Alan R. (1990), "Cultural Interpenetration: A Critical Consumer Research Issue for the 1990s," in Advances in Consumer Research, Vol. Richard J. Lutz. 7, ed. Thomas K. Srull, Provo, UT: Association for Consumer Research, 562-566. M. Wallendorf and P. Anderson, Provo, UT: Association for Consumer Research, 392-393. Thomas K. Srull, Provo, UT: Association for Consumer Research, 110-118. The focus of most cross-cultural research has been on geographic comparisons of consumers in Western countries (e.g., North America, Europe) and in non-Western ones, usually Asian countries (e.g., China, Japan, Korea, India; Han and Shavitt, 1994, Kim and Markus, 1999). 14, eds. Subcultural research has become increasingly sophisticated with comparison of more diverse groups. Michael J. Houston, Provo, UT: Association for Consumer Research, 411-417. Cultural Foundations of the Endorsement Process," Journal of Consumer Research, 16 (December), 310-321. Hempel, Donald J. Because cross-cultural consumer research is a mature and active subdiscipline, this curation highlights the last few years of research. Green, Robert T. and Philip D. White (1976), "Methodological Considerations in Cross-National Research," Journal of International Business Studies, 7 (Fall/Winter), 81-88. Figure 7 notes an array of cultural artifacts examined in a cross-cultural context. Save time and never re-search. Cross-Cultural Consumer Research: a Twenty-Year Review @article{Sojka1995CrossCulturalCR, title={Cross-Cultural Consumer Research: a Twenty-Year Review}, author={Jane Z. Sojka and P. Tansuhaj}, journal={ACR North American Advances}, year={1995} } W.L. AU - Shavitt, Sharon. Hirschman (1985), for example, found similar consumption patterns among primitive cultures and U.S. subcultures. Objective: 13.1: Understand the importance of formulating an appropriate multinational or global marketing strategy. 7, ed. Cultures Studied. Sexton, Donald E. (1971), "Do Blacks Pay More? Hence, language serves various functions in a cultural context. J.C. Olson, Ann Arbor, MI: Association for Consumer Research, 255-257. Douglas, Susan P. (1980), "On the Use of Verbal Protocols in Cross-Cultural and Cross-National Consumer Research," in Advances in Consumer Research, Vol. R. Bagozzi and A. Tybout, Ann Arbor, MI: Association for Consumer Research, 334-338. Murphy, Patrick E., Norman Kangun, and William B. Locander (1978), "Environmentally Concerned Consumers-Racial Variations," Journal of Marketing, 42 (October), 61-66. 13, ed. Sexton, Donald E. (1972), "Black Buyer Behavior," Journal of Marketing, 36 (October), 36-39. The first three papers address new motivational and cognitive patterns associated with cultural self-construals. Murphy, Patrick E., Norman Kangun, and William B. Locander (1978), "Environmentally Concerned Consumers-Racial Variations," Journal of Marketing, 42 (October), 61-66. The child growing up in a society leans University Faculty of Economics Adminitrative Munson, J. Michael and Shelby McIntyre (1978), "Personal Values: A Cross Cultural Assessment of Self Values and Values Attributed to a Distant Cultural Stereotype," in Advances in Consumer Research, Vol.5, ed. Sherry, John F. Jr. (1990), "A Sociocultural Analysis of a Midwestern American Flea Market," Journal of Consumer Research, 17 (June), 13-30. Reilly, Michael and Melanie Wallendorf (1984), "A Longitudinal Study of Mexican-American Assimilation," in Advances in Consumer Behavior, Vol. Wilk, Richard R. (1987), "House, Home, and Consumer Decision Making in Two Cultures," in Advances in Consumer Research, Vol. Not surprisingly, it appears, that language is a poor indicator of ethnicity. Elizabeth C. Hirschman and Morris B. Holbrook, Provo, UT: Association for Consumer Research, 113-117. The first three papers address new motivational and cognitive patterns associated with cultural self-construals. Also, since some researchers examined more than one country or culture at a time, a single article may be cross-listed under several countries. Contradictory research exists to question the validity of using potentially stereotypical values to explain and predict consumer behavior. 17, eds. (1980), "Cultural Comparisons of Variety-Seeking Behavior," in Advances in Consumer Research, Vol. %PDF-1.5 We explore this through a study of cross-cultural consumer decision-making styles. There have been numerous literature reviews of consumer behavior topics which have relevance to cross-cultural studies (cf., Folkes 1988; Helegson, Kluge, Mager and Taylor 1984; McAlister and Pessemier 1982; Sheppard, Hartwick and Warshaw 1988; Sirgy 1982). Elizabeth C. Hirschman and Morris B. Holbrook, Provo, UT: Association for Consumer Research, 215-219. {�����Э��u�ǻO��?�}���y������Cs���t��}��wD&D^T٧�Y��LUY]i������ ����c���\��u��,�Ů��o��� K! 7, ed. Kent Monroe, Ann Arbor, MI: Association for Consumer Research, 718-722. While a discussion on cross-cultural methods is beyond the scope of this paper, it nonetheless, needs to be addressed if the field is to move beyond the descriptive research stage. The "general" category (as noted in Arnould 1989) is used when the researcher examined artifacts in general as opposed to a specific class of goods such as durables. C) cross-cultural analysis . Pruden, Henry O. and Douglas S. Longman (1972), "Race, Alienation and Consumerism," Journal of Marketing, 36 (July), 58-63. Graham, John L., Dong Ki Kim, Chi-Yuan Lin, and Michael Robinson (1988), "Buyer-Seller Negotiations around the Pacific Rim: Differences in Fundamental Exchange Processes," Journal of Consumer Research, 15 (June), 48-54. For example, the boxes containing "Cote 1989" have an asterisk and are therefore listed under countries studied in that article: Jordan and Thailand (see Figures 3 and 5). 5, ed. Both findings reiterate the rising interest and importance of cross-cultural consumer behavior research. 181-192. (1989), "Current Theory and Research on Cross-Cultural Factors in Consumer Behavior," in Advances in Consumer Research, Vol. 3 ed. As might be surmised, the topics of consumer acculturation, adoption, decision processes and diffusion are frequently examined. This review synthesizes critical developments in the last decade of research related to the most commonly studied cultural dimensions. 14, eds. 5, ed. Kim, Chankon, Michael Laroche, and Annamma Joy (1990), "An Empirical Study of the Effects of Ethnicity on Consumption Patterns in a Bi-Cultural Environment," in Advances in Consumer Research, Vol. Arnold, Stephen J., Tae H. Oum, and Douglas J. Tigert (1983), "Determinant Attributes in Retail Patronage: Seasonal, Temporal, Regional, and International Comparisons," Journal of Marketing Research, 20 (May), 149-157. Hunt, Ann Arbor, Mi: Association for Consumer Research, 160-166. Hawes, Douglass K., Sigmund Gronmo, and John Arndt (1978), "Shopping and Leisure Time: Some Preliminary Cross-Cultural Comparisons of Time-Budget Expenditures," in Advances in Consumer Research, Vol. M. Wallendorf and P. Anderson, Provo, UT: Association for Consumer Research, 574. Belk, Russell W., (1984), "Cultural and Historical Differences in Concepts of Self and Their Effects on Attitudes Toward Having and Giving," in Advances in Consumer Research, Vol. 14, eds. Box 870225, Tuscaloosa, AL 35487-0225, … H.K. Anderson, Ronald and Jack Engledow (1977), "A Factor Analytic Comparison of U.S. and German Information Seekers," Journal of Consumer Research, 3 (March), 185-196. Jaffe, Eugene D. and Israel D. Nebenzahl (1984), "Alternative Questionnaire Formats For Country Image Studies," Journal of Marketing Research, 21 (November), 463-471. The final criterion used for selecting articles appropriate for this literature review is the requirement that the research deal with consumers and consumer behavior. research by providing empi rical evidence of how consumer-behavior styles vary. O'Connor, P.J., Gary L. Sullivan, and Dana A. Pogorzelski (1985), "Cross Cultural Family Purchasing Decisions: A Literature Review," in Advances in Consumer Research, Vol. 17, eds. Marvin Goldberg, Gerald Gorn and Richard W. Pollay, Provo, UT: Association for Consumer Research, 847-849. 17, eds. As opposed to using language as a subcultural identifier, Hirschman (1981) proposes using an emic measure of ethnicity which permits the individual to ascribe religious and cultural identity to him/herself. While the early research was fundamental in sparking the interest on cross-cultural topics, as a society and discipline we have moved beyond "negro" perceptions to a broader-based African-American culture. Arnould, Eric J. Jane Sojka, Washington State University Donohue, Thomas R., Timothy P. Meyer, and Lucy Henke (1978), "Black and While Children: Perceptions of TV Commercials," Journal of Marketing, 42 (October) 34-40. If the U.S. continues the trend toward "ethnic upsurges" as noted by Schlesinger (1991) in his book, The Disuniting of America, continued research with additional subcultures represented is warranted. Examinations of the Hispanic subculture has produced a number of theoretical observations on the assimilation and acculturation of Hispanic consumer behavior; likewise, it is time to re-examine the consumer behavior of the African-American culture with a fresh perspective. Yet, the literature on international marketing and cross-cultural consumer research has for the most part assumed culturally homogeneous national or regional markets, focusing instead on comparisons and differences between cultures separated by borders. J.C. Olson, Ann Arbor, MI: Association for Consumer Research, 684-687. Jolibert, Alain J.P. and Gary Baumgartner (1981), "Toward a Definition of the Consumerist Segment in France," Journal of Consumer Research, 8 (June), 114-117. The large number of definitions and the fact that the term is used frequently in common conversation (with no apparent communication confusion) does not excuse scientific researchers from providing readers with a theoretical and/or operational definition of the construct under investigation. Gentry, James W., Patriya Tansuhaj, L. Lee Manzer, and Joby John (1988), "Do Geographic Subcultures Vary Culturally?" From a preliminary overview, several topics such as materialism, consumption patterns between same sexed individuals, and family structure similarities offer commonalities between unique cultures that need further investigation. Sudman, Seymour (1985), "Efficient Screening Methods for the Sampling of Geographically Clustered Populations," Journal of Marketing Research, 22 (February), 20-29. CROSS-CULTURAL STUDIES OF EUROPE AND MIDDLE EAST. Richard Lutz, Provo, UT: Association for Consumer Research, 573-575. 4, ed. Are there cultural and/or national contexts in which our base assumptions of consumer behavior may no longer hold? Thomas Kinnear, Provo, UT: Association for Consumer Research 753-760. J.C. Olson, Ann Arbor, MI: Association for Consumer Research, 17-21. 5, ed. This article presents a framework that integrates and reinterprets current research in cross‐cultural consumer behavior. 7, ed. Sharon Shavitt, Ashok K. Lalwani, Jing Zhang, Carlos J. Torelli. In addition, the Asian or Oriental subculture deserves more attention. An important issue to note here is that Cross-cultural marketing is the strategic process of marketing among consumers whose culture is different from that of the marketer's own culture. 14, eds. 10, eds. Consumer behavior researchers have done an admirable job in the initial step of studying a large and diverse number of countries; nonetheless, a cross-national study (noted as a letter "N" in Figures 3-5) does not always translate into a cross-cultural analysis (indicated by the letter "C" in the Figures). 4, July), 393-402. DISCUSSION AND SUGGESTIONS FOR FUTURE RESEARCH. proposes a decision-making model that explains the co-adoption of threeenvironmental behaviors such as sourcing electricity from green suppliers, purchasing green products and using public transport. Gould, John W., Norman B. Sigband, and Cyril E. Zoerner Jr., (1970), "Black Consumer Reactions to `Integrated' Advertising: An Exploratory Study," Journal of Marketing, 34 (July), 20-26. Davis, Harry L., Susan P. Douglas, and Alvin J. R. Bagozzi and A. Tybout, Ann Arbor, MI: Association for Consumer Research, 699-701. Engel, James F. (1976), "Psychographic Research in a Cross-Cultural Nonproduct Setting," in Advances in Consumer Research, Vol. behavior has used the Hofstede dimensional. Green, Robert T., Jean-Paul Leonardi, Jean-Louis Chandon, Isabella C.M. Tan, Chin Tiong, Jim McCullough, and Jeannie Teoh (1987), "An Individual Analysis Approach to Cross Cultural Research," in Advances in Consumer Research, Vol. 14, eds. Article Type: Guest editorial From: International Marketing Review, Volume 32, Issue 3/4. Types of goods or artifacts studied are obviously broad categories. Consumer behavior is influenced by cultural norms and beliefs. © 2020 Association for Consumer Research, The Journal of the Association for Consumer Research (JACR). 181-192. While materialism is an internalized value, it outwardly results in possessions obtained to enhance that materialistic value. Regardless of the dominant religion, Ger and Belk (1990) found the protestant work ethic and the subsequent increased value of material possessions to be surprisingly prevalent in Third World countries (Lee 1989; Wallendorf and Arnould 1987). 16, ed. After 1986, only one article examined the African-American subculture and that was in conjunction with the Hispanic and Polish subcultures (Reilly and Wallendorf 1987). When dealing with a subculture speaking a language distinct from the dominant culture (e.g., Hispanics in the U.S.) or as in bilingual countries (e.g., Canada) language was often used as a segmentation variable or measure of ethnicity. Kanter, Donald L. (1978), "The Europeanizing of America: A Study in Changing Values," in Advances in Consumer Research, Vol.

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