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...Was he Prophet and Teacher, or was he Priest? She was so keen to perpetuate the study of Zoroastrianism that in her will she bequeathed her estate to SOAS for the founding of a professorship in Zoroastrian studies and her library to The Ancient India & Iran Trust, Cambridge, of which she was an Honorary Fellow. Bahman Morādiān, Farvahar 41/9-10, 2007, pp. Chosen from more than 1,600 applicants to the Hono... May, 14 2019 - … Obituary: Nora Elizabeth Mary Boyce Almut Hintze Professor Nora Elizabeth Mary Boyce, who died on 4 April 2006, aged 85, was a leading authority on Zoroastrianism, the pre-Islamic religion of Iran. The Royal Asiatic Society's annual Boyce Prize for outstanding contributions to the study of religion is named after her. In 1992, she published Zoroastrianism: Its Antiquity and Constant Vigour as part of the Columbia Lectures on Iranian Studies which she had delivered there in 1985. 596-97. Review of Sven Hartman, Parsism: the religion of Zoroaster, BSOAS 45/3, 1982, pp. 148-56. After her return from Iran she reflected at length on the significance of what she had witnessed, and produced concomitantly some Parthian and Manichean studies as well as articles on Iran, including, for example, “The fire-temples of Kerman,” Acta Orientalia 30, 1966, pp. Foreword to Tina Mehta, The Zarathushtrian Saga, Calcutta, 1995. Following early retirement she became Professor Emerita and a Professorial Research Associate at SOAS (1982-2006). The Manichaean Hymn Cycles in Parthian, London Oriental Studies 3, London, 1954; Reviews: BSOAS 29/2, 1957, pp. II, Copenhagen, 1968, pp. In addition to her numerous articles in journals and Festschriften, Boyce was also a prolific contributor of 84 entries to EIr., 14 of which were written in collaboration with F. M. Kotwal (reviewed in Jamsheed Choksy, “Ancient Religions,” Iranian Studies 31/3-4, 1998 [1999], pp. Boyce also believed it was critical to understand the way traditions were preserved orally. 443-49. Nora Elisabeth Mary Boyce Born August 2, 1920(1920 08 02) Darjeeling, India Died April 4, 2006(2006 04 04) (aged 85) Occupation Philologist Known f She was taught by Hector Munro Chadwick (1870-1947), a world authority on oral literatures who influenced some of her studies on Parthian minstrelsy mentioned below. 297-308; “Diyānat-e Zartošti dar dawrān-e motaʾaḵḵer,” in Diyānat-e Zartošti, tr. 145-95, carries the study of Zoroastrianism beyond the Sasanian period into the period under Islamic rule (also idem, “Zoroastrianism in Iran after the Arab Conquest,” A Zoroastrian Tapestry: Art, Religion and Culture, eds., P. Godrej and F. Punthakey Mistree, Ahmedabad and Cliffedgeway, NJ, 2002, pp. I am delighted she has agreed to serve as Provost and look forward to working even more closely with her in the years to come. 45-52; and “The Parthian gōsān and Iranian Minstrel Tradition,” JRAS, 1957, pp. 67-71. Review of Johanna Narten, Die Aməša Spəṇtas im Avesta, BSOAS 47/1, 1984, pp. ʿAskar Bahrāmi as Zardoštiyān: bāvarhā va ādāb-e dini-ye ānhā , Tehran, 2002, 10th repr., 2009; Review: ArOr 50/1, 1982, pp. James Russell, Nāme-ye Irān-e Bāstān: the International Journal of Ancient Iranian Studies 5/1-2, 2005-07 [2007], pp. Presented as the decennial Ratanbai Katrak Lectures at the University of Oxford (1975), it is cogently written and reflects concerns that would determine the course of her subsequent studies. ... MC Boyce, M Breadmore, M Macka, P Doble, PR Haddad. Boyce completed her Manichean and Parthian studies in “Parthian Writings and Literature” (pp. There is no room for sacerdotal functions as a really integral part of such a man’s gospel; and of ritual or spells we hear as little as we expect to hear.” Boyce rejected such polarization and saw Zoroaster as both teacher and prophet, inspired, as she was, by the priests she encountered in Iran. 73-75. 41-63); “The Parthian: defenders of the land and faith,” (pp. But she believes this orthodoxy was undermined in the 1960s by Iran’s “economic miracle” when a number of Zoroastrians from Yazd migrated to big cosmopolitan centers, notably Tehran, and came under western and reformist influences (see idem, “Some points of traditional observance and of change among the Zoroastrians of Kerman,”Ātaš-e dorun, pp. H. Franke et al., vol. Boyce was a recipient of the Royal Asiatic Society's Burton Medal, and of the Sykes Medal of the Royal Society of Asian Affairs. 30-44. W. Foy, London, 1978; repr. 43-56). 454-65. 11.1.17, p. 613: “[I]t has been a weakness in the western study of Zoroastrianism that it has concentrated largely on texts. “An old village dakhma of Iran,” Mémorial Jean de Menasce, eds., Ph. A History of Zoroastrianism: the Early Period, vol. 59-77. thesis, University of London, 1986). Abu’l-Ḥasan Tahāmi, as Āyin-e zartušt: kohan ruzgār va qodrat māndegāraš, Tehran, 2007; Review: BSOAS 58/2, 1995, pp. 25-40. Review of Jürgen Hampel, Die Kopenhagener Handschrift Cod. 149-62), unlike most works on Zoroastrianism, but like Boyce’s Zoroastrians, 2001, pp. ; also “On the antiquity of Zoroastrian apocalyptic,” BSOAS 47/1, 1984, pp. This enthusiasm was also manifested in her writing, in the two books designed for students: first, her ground-breaking study of Zoroastrianism (Zoroastrians: their religious beliefs and practices (London, 1979), weaving the narrative from pre-Zoroastrian times down to the present in both India and Iran thus highlighting her conviction of the continuity of the Zoroastrian tradition. for Iranian religions (1982-97) and a member of its international advisory committee (1997-2006). In contrast to her earlier Manichean textual studies, every chapter is about religion, including the introductory one, which sets the context in the villages and in local Iranian history, with, for example, the description of the basic diet in relation to festive celebrations (p. 15) and the ensuing exposition of key doctrines. In chapter 1 she dismissed the various legends linking Zoroaster with different places (see ZOROASTER ii), while in chapter 2 she examined the social conditions implied by the Old Avestan literature, concluding that “The possible chronological limits thus appear to be c. 1500-c. 1200; and a date at the lower limit, i.e. 3, Zoroastrianism Under Macedonian and Roman Rule, https://en.wikipedia.org/w/index.php?title=Mary_Boyce&oldid=985045242, Academics of Royal Holloway, University of London, Wikipedia articles with CANTIC identifiers, Wikipedia articles with SUDOC identifiers, Wikipedia articles with Trove identifiers, Wikipedia articles with WORLDCATID identifiers, Creative Commons Attribution-ShareAlike License, 1988, "The religion of Cyrus the Great", in A. Kuhrt and H. Sancisi-Weerdenburg, This page was last edited on 23 October 2020, at 16:46. 108-10 and associated notes). In 1963–64, Boyce spent a research year among orthodox Zoroastrians of the 24 villages of Yazd, Iran. Submitted tags will be reviewed by site administrator before it is posted online.If you enter several tags, separate with commas. Complementing this textbook was a chrestomathy, again both ancient and modern, so that students could read the sources for themselves (Textual Sources for the Study of Zoroastrianism, Manchester, 1984; repr., Chicago, 1990). A. Sh. A/Prof. Their combined citations are counted only for the first article. Zoroastrianism: A Shadowy but Powerful Presence in the Judaeo-Christian World, Friends of Dr. William’s Library Forty-First Lecture, London, 1987. Homāyun Ṣanʿati [zāda], Bokārā 50, (Farvardīn-Ordibehešt, 1385 Š./2006), pp. She was a member of the Council of the Royal Asiatic Society, honorary member of the American Oriental Society, member of the Royal Danish Academy of Sciences and Letters, and was the first secretary and treasurer of the Corpus Inscriptionum Iranicarum. Judaism, 1, eds., W. Davies and L. Finkelstein, Cambridge, 1984, pp. Mary Boyce of Columbia has been named one of 10 National Scholars at Clemson University for 2019. John Hinnells, “BOYCE, MARY,” Encyclopædia Iranica, online edition, 2012, available at http://www.iranicaonline.org/articles/boyce-mary (accessed on 15 October 2012). 17-19 [report on lecture by François de Blois, Royal Asiatic Society, London, 13 March, 2008; also delivered in the Bai Ratanbai Katrak Lecture Series, Oxford, 20 October, 2009]. 239-57. Born on 2 August 1920 in Darjeeling, India, she was educated in England first at Wimbledon High School and Cheltenham Ladies’s College, and 19-53. Idem, “Boyce, (Nora Elizabeth) Mary,” Oxford Dictionary of National Biography, January 2010; online edition, September 2010, available at http://www.oxforddnb.com/view/article/97119. 51-72; and “Bībī Shahrbānū and the Lady of Pārs,” BSOAS 30/1, 1967, pp. Dean Mary Boyce will assume the position of Provost next year. 279-88; “Some remarks on the transmission of the Kayanian heroic cycle,” Serta Cantabrigiensia, Wiesbaden, 1954, pp. 92-99. [1], Boyce was educated at Wimbledon High School and then Cheltenham Ladies' College. This came soon after her appointment in 1963 as Professor of Iranian Studies at SOAS, succeeding Henning who had moved to Berkeley in California. Within a year she was appointed Assistant Lecturer in Anglo-Saxon Literature and Archaeology at Royal Holloway College, University of London (1944-46). diss., 2 vols., University of Chicago, 1973. 33-37. Her mother, Nora, was a granddaughter of the noted historian of the Puritan revolution, Samuel Rawson Gardiner. 100-18; “On the sacred fires of the Zoroastrians,” BSOAS 31/1, 1968, pp. from Turfan, with additions and corrections to Manichaean hymn-cycles in Parthian,” published in Mitteilungen des Instituts für Orientforschung IV, 2, 1956, pp. “Zariadres and Zarēr, BSOAS XVII/3, 1955, pp. In the early chapters she summarized her conclusions from HZ I and II, and sometimes refined those earlier works and drew out the implications so as to form something of a conclusion to her work. A Catalogue of the Iranian Manuscripts in the Manichean Script in the German Turfan Collection, Institut für Orientforschung 45, Berlin, 1960; Review: BSOAS 28/1, 1965, pp. In a footnote, however, Grenet accepts the story citing parallel accounts (but also see p. 889-919. Review of H. W. Bailey, The Culture of the Sakas in Ancient Iranian Khotan, JRAS, 1983, pp. The Professor Mary Boyce Prize for the study of Asian religions has been instituted by the Royal Asiatic Society in her memory. 106-7, the reference to the fravašis in Y. What is remarkable about this volume is that Zoroastrianism is studied not only in the Iranian border territories such as Gandhara but also in the non-Iranian lands of the former Achaemenid empire including Galatia, Cappadocia and Pontus, Syria and Egypt. It was something on which she had published in “On the calendar of Zoroastrian feasts,” BSOAS 33/3, 1970, pp. “Iconoclasm among the Zoroastrians,” Christianity, Judaism, and other Greco-Roman cults: studies for Morton Smith at sixty, ed., J. Neusner, Leiden, 1975, pt. The year 1977 saw the publication of one of her finest works, based on her 1963-64 field-work and entitled A Persian stronghold of Zoroastrianism. Frantz Grenet, Stud. Her sadly unfinished HZ IV (With Albert de Jong, Parthian Zoroastrianism, 2 vols., HO, Leiden, forthcoming) will continue the narrative down to the end of the Arsacid period. and tr., The Pahlavi Rivāyat of Āturfarnbag and Farnbag-srōš, BSOAS 35/1, 1972, pp. “On the Orthodoxy of Sasanian Zoroastrianism,” BSOAS 59/1, 1996, pp. “Zoroaster’s Theology: Translation as an obstacle to understanding,” Tradition und Translation … Festschrift für Carsten Colpe, eds., C. Elsas et al., Berlin and New York, 1994, pp. 326-27); and “Zoroastrianism” vol. She scours the fragmentary sources to reconstruct the history of Zoroastrian oppression and persecution as they were gradually driven from the great urban centers and were compelled to live in poverty, hidden from Muslim view in villages in the Yazdi plain and not even allowed to build wind-towers (see BĀDGIR) to cool their houses in the scorching summer heat. She served on the editorial board of numerous academic publications, including Asia Major, the Encyclopaedia Iranica, the Bulletin of the School of Oriental and African Studies, and the Journal of the American Oriental Society. She also gave her current views on the problem of the Zoroastrian calendars (ZACV, pp. “The bipartite society of the ancient Iranians,” Societies and Languages of the ancient Near East: studies in honour of I. M. Diakonoff, eds., M. Dandamayev et al., Warminster, 1982, pp. Ushta Newsletter 27/1-2, (January-March 2006) [special supplement in honor of Professor Mary Boyce]. SCC1111 General Chemistry; SCC2301 Forensic and Analytical Chemistry Current Teaching. She was generous with the time she gave to her students, and her tutorials, like those of Henning, could last for hours. A year later, in 1947, she was appointed to a lectureship in Iranian studies at SOAS. 19-31. Columbia University President Lee C. Bollinger today announced his appointment of Mary Cunningham Boyce as the new Dean of the Fu Foundation School of Engineering and Applied Science, effective July … She also joined a seminar (1949-50) to study the important Sasanian tract, the Letter of Tansar. 8-9 and Hamazor 4I/2, 2006, pp. BOYCE, Nora Elizabeth Mary (b. Darjeeling, India, 2 August 1920; d. London, 4 April 2006), scholar of Zoroastrianism and its relevant languages, and Professor of Iranian Studies at the School of Oriental and African Studies (SOAS) of the University of London (FIGURE 1). She summed this up in a little-known article published for the Open University program in Britain, “The Continuity of the Zoroastrian Quest,” in Man’s Religious Quest: a Reader, ed. But she saw the cult of the fravašis as perhaps a deviation from Zoroaster’s teaching (ZACV, pp. 22-177) which she also believed to be part of that great continuity (except Zoroaster only venerated beings that were spәntā). In chapter 3 (ZACV, pp. Nora Elisabeth Mary Boyce was a British scholar of Iranian languages, and an authority on Zoroastrianism. 95-105. with a new foreword, 2001; tr. She justifies her view of the great continuity of the prophet’s teaching by pointing out that as the religion was confined mainly to the Iranians it did not have to make great adjustments to the faiths of other races (ZACV, pp. Login to Scholar to join and create private or public communities, connect with peers, comment on updates and create publishable works. This makes for a unique, seminal narrative displaying outstanding sensitivity and insight. Chapter 8 (ZACV, pp. 277-82. 620-24. Review of R. Ghirshman, L’Iran et la migration des Indo-Aryens et des Iraniens, JAOS 99/1, 1979, pp. BOYCE, Nora Elizabeth Mary (b. Darjeeling, India, 2 August 1920; d. London, 4 April 2006), scholar of Zoroastrianism and its relevant languages, and Professor of Iranian Studies at the School of Oriental and African Studies (SOAS) of the University of London ().. Mary Boyce was born in India where her father, William H. Boyce, was a High Court Judge in Calcutta. 11-28. Nora Elisabeth Mary Boyce (2 August 1920 – 4 April 2006) was a British scholar of Iranian languages, and an authority on Zoroastrianism. 217f. The narrative in the Pahlavi book Ardā Virāz Nāmag, she presumes (p. 119), belongs to the early days of the religion. 15-31), she asserts, at her first mention of Cyrus (p. 43), that he “put himself forward as a champion of Zoroastrianism” without adducing any evidence. 119-20. Omid Behbehāni and Abu’l-Ḥasan Tahāmi as Barrasi adabiyāt mānavi dar matnhā-ye pārti va pārsi-ye miyāneh, Tehran, 2004; Review: BSOAS 9/3, 1977, pp. 3-9. The Royal Asiatic Society's annual Boyce Prize for outstanding contributions to the study of religion is named after her. A Last Stronghold of Traditional Zoroastrianism, Teaching Aids for the Study of Inner Asia 7, Bloomington, 1977. 908-15; “Some Parthian abecedarian hymns,” BSOAS 14/3, 1952, pp. 236-60. From the studies of Zurvanism made in this century, a large measure of agreement has been reached. She was born in Darjeeling where her parents were vacationing to escape the heat of the plains during the summer. After the publication of HZ I, Boyce’s work continued to be focused mainly on religious issues, notably, “Mihragān among the Irani Zoroastrians,” in Mithraic Studies: Proceedings of the First International Congress of Mithraic Studies, ed., J. R. Hinnells, I, Manchester, 1975, pp. 349-51. 15-22). Boyce was always keen to encourage others to study Zoroastrianism. Dissertations or studies under Boyce’s guidance. 792-815; “Jašnhā-ye Irāniyān,” tr. A History of Zoroastrianism: Under the Achaemenians, vol. 67-76), Literatur, HO I.IV.2, Leiden and Cologne, 1968. E. Yarshater, Cambridge, 1983. 0 Reviews . “The Indian Fables in the Letter of Tansar,” Asia Major, n.s., V/1, 1955, pp. She developed her theory of the continuity of Zoroastrian belief and practice from the time of the prophet right down to modern times. Lanham, MD, 1989. Review: Michael Fischer, Iranian Studies 10/4, 1977, pp. Each read the other’s manuscript, commented, and often arrived at different conclusions. 45, Berlin, 1960). 137-40). A briefer version of this work appeared while she was Paton Visiting Professor at Indiana University (A last stronghold of traditional Zoroastrianism, Bloomington, 1977) and was published, along with another public lecture, Zoroastrianism: the rediscovery of missing chapters in man’s religious history, Bloomington, 1977, in the Teaching Aids for the Study of Inner Asia series. In reconstructing the religion of the various Achaemenid monarchs she often uses evidence taken from living usage (for example, p. 70, on Cambyses making offerings for his father’s soul and p. 248 on the calendar observed by Artaxerxes II, 404-358 BCE). By this time she was already an honorary member of the American Oriental Society (1976) and a foreign member of the Royal Danish Academy of Sciences and Letters (1978). Boyce attended Richland Northeast High School. The major change she sees in the Sasanian period was the emergence of a written form of the orally transmitted Avesta  although she argues this affected only the learned priestly classes (ZACV, pp. Who, she asked, were likely to have a deeper understanding of the religion, western academics or the devout priests living in a remote spot sequestered from outside influences so that orthodox beliefs and practices were retained for millennia? Foreword to W. B. Henning - Selected Papers, comp. This is a program of the U.S. Department of State with funding provided by the U.S. Government, administered by IIE. Besides articles and chapters cited supra in entry, also note the following significant studies (listed chronologically). Foreword to Delphine Menant, The Parsis: being an enlarged & copious annotated, up to date English edition of Mlle. I am pleased to announce my appointment of MIT Professor Mary Cunningham Boyce as the new dean of Columbia’s Fu Foundation School of Engineering and Applied Science. 107, 112-16 where she stresses continuity in the Yašts which others such as Zaehner and Gershevitch have seen as backsliding into paganism, although she allows for a little of that). Hist. Gherardo Gnoli, East and West 56/4, 2006, pp. They were published as A Catalogue of the Iranian Manuscripts in Manichean script in the German Turfan Collection by the Institut für Orientforschung of the Deutsche Akademie der Wissenschaften (nr. The first substantial indicator of Boyce’s grand theory of the continuity of Zoroastrian belief and practice emerged in volume I of her magisterial four-volume, A History of Zoroastrianism (hereinafter HZ). Mary is an Associate Professor within the School of Science. So although the book is entitled Zoroastrianism: its antiquity and constant vigour, she comments on the majority of Zoroastrians, namely the Parsis, only in passing. 25-36). 171-90. Lincoln 1985 … The Pahlavi Rivāyat accompanying the Dādestān ī Dēnīg, 2 vols., Copenhagen, 1990 (Ph.D. thesis, University of London, 1984). 47 likes. “The Zoroastrians of Iran: over 3000 years of faith,” Asian Affairs 16/3, 1985, pp. 245-46. Review of Jean-Pierre de Menasce, Une encyclopédie mazdéenne: le Dēnkart. Hist. [Philip] G. Kreyenbroek, Sraoša in the Zoroastrian Tradition, Leiden, 1985, repr., Mumbai [Bombay], 1999 (external supervision, Leiden University, 1982). 261-70. During this stage of her career she was also active in scholarly bodies: she served the Corpus Inscriptionum Iranicarum from its inception as secretary and treasurer (1955-70) alongside Henning as chairman; the Council of the Royal Asiatic Society (1956-60, 1965-68) and the editorial board of the journal, Asia Major (1962-76). xxi–xxvi; an earlier one including personalia is in Bio-bibliographies de 134 Savants, Acta Iranica 20, Leiden, 1979, pp. 591-92. After a discussion of the haoma ritual and the Gāthās, she concluded (p. repr., 1996), Boyce began with a substantial discussion of the pre-Zoroastrian religion (pp. 55-64; and “On the Zoroastrian temple cult of fire,” JAOS 95/3, 1975, pp. Her Ratanbai Katrak lecture series were published in 1977 as A Persian Stronghold of Zoroastrianism. A Reader in Manichaean Middle Persian and Parthian: Texts with Notes, Acta Iranica 9, Tehran and Liège, 1975; tr. Although Boyce acknowledges that there were changes in the religion, for example, the introduction of temple fires (p. 184), the central theme of the final chapter (ZACV, pp. In 1946 Boyce returned to Cambridge and embarked on her doctoral dissertation on “The Parthian hymn cycles” under the joint supervision of Henning and Harold W. Bailey (1899-1996). 270-89. Review of Malcolm Colledge, The Parthians, BSOAS 31/3, 1968, pp. She completed her thesis in 1952, and it was published as The Manichaean Hymn Cycles in Parthian two years later. She also began to turn her attention to Zoroastrianism and published, for example, “Some Reflections on Zurvanism,” BSOAS 29/2, 1957, pp. Mary Boyce, Textual Sources for the Study of Religion, Manchester, 1984; repr. Mary Boyce. At Newnham College, Cambridge she studied English, archaeology and anthropology, graduating with a double first.[1]. For example, Boyce rejected the credibility of the Onesicritus story in which the citizens of Bactra (see BACTRIA) threw their old people outside the city wall to be eaten by dogs, for she found it “unthinkable that in any Zoroastrian community there should have been a practice of allowing the old or the sick to be eaten alive by dogs” because it would go against the doctrine that death is the work of Ahriman and one should not hasten death and burden one’s soul with sin (p. 7, n. 24). 1-103 (M.A. Center for Iranian Studies Newsletter 18/1, (Spring 2006), pp. At SOAS, she was promoted to Reader (1958–1961) and subsequently awarded the University of London's professorship in Iranian Studies following Henning's transfer to the University of California at Berkeley. 125-148) she stresses the continuity of tradition through the Achaemenids, as evidenced especially by Darius and in the Greek literature (see GREECE vi), although she asserts one major change and that was the introduction of fire temples under Babylonian influence (pp. Her father, William H. Boyce, was a Judge at the Calcutta high-court, then an institution of the British imperial government. 2005, pp. “Priests, Cattle and Men,” BSOAS 50/3, 1987, pp. This became a standard work of reference for generations of scholars. ... Mary C Boyce. The Letter of Tansar, tr. Quatre conférences données à l’Université de Paris sous les auspices de la fondation Ratanbai Katrak, BSOAS 23/1, 1960, pp. 12 (pp. 229ff.) The seminar was directed by Henning and the famous Iranian scholar Mojtaba Minovi (1903-1976) who was at the time working at the BBC (see GREAT BRITAIN xxiii). Mary Cunningham Boyce, a former MIT professor who is an expert in nanotechnology and materials research, is the new dean of the Fu Foundation School of Engineering and Applied Science. I. Steblin-Kamensky as Zoroastriĭtsy: verovaniya i obychai, Moscow, 1987, 3rd. “The ‘Parsis’ or Persians of Anatolia,” Platinum Jubilee Volume: K. R. Cama Oriental Institute, Bombay, 1991, pp. 116-19) who asked: “How are we to classify Zarathushtra [?] 43-53. Samuel Lieu, Manichaeism in the Later Roman Empire and Medieval China: a Historical Survey [with a foreword by Mary Boyce], Manchester, 1985, repr., 1999 (unofficial external supervision, D.Phil.

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